Drawing on your prior knowledge and what you know about goal-setting theory, why do you think that career-goal commitment is not enough to affect job search behaviour among the older workers in the South Korean context?

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Drawing on your prior knowledge and what you know about goal-setting theory, why do you think that career-goal commitment is not enough to affect job search behaviour among the older workers in the South Korean context?

Mediating Role of Career Coaching on Job-Search Behavior of Older Generations


A large population of experienced workers in South Korea are quickly ageing and nearing retirement, leaving talent shortage behind and posing a threat to organizations’ survival and success. These ageing workers over 65 years continue to job-search and remain interested in developing their skills and competencies for current or future jobs. However, organizations have given little attention to their career development, making it a challenge for older workers to receive promotions in their current organizations or have a smooth career transition.

This critical issue of a rapidly increasing ageing population in South Korea has called on researchers to conduct studies that would support the critical need for having career development programs to help the ageing workers.

Drawing on the literature for career coaching, goal-setting, self-efficacy, and job-search behaviour, this article tests hypotheses in a study of 249 participants. The study examines the relationship between older employees’ goal-setting, self-efficacy, and job search mediated by career coaching.

career coaching.

Among the findings are the following (Lim et al., 2019):

  • A positive relationship between career-goal commitment and perceived value of career coaching
  • No direct relationship between career-goal commitment and job-search behaviour, but a significantly positive association mediated by the perceived value of career coaching
  • No relationship between self-efficacy and value of career coaching
  • A significantly positive relationship between self-efficacy and job-search behaviour
  • A significantly positive relationship between the perceived value of career coaching and job-search behaviour

Question 1: Drawing on your prior knowledge and what you know about goal-setting theory, why do you think that career-goal commitment is not enough to affect job search behaviour among the older workers in the South Korean context? Do you think it can be a driving factor in a different context or with a different age group?

Question 2: As noted in the article, intention and endeavour are the main features of self-efficacy that drive job search behaviour. In what way can career coaching contribute to older workers’ self-efficacy? Please explain.


Exercise 2


Vesper et al. (2010) walk the readers through a unique case study of a pharmaceutical experiential course while explaining how each step of Kolb’s experiential learning theory and Vygotsky’s social learning model intersect to foster a rich learning environment for its participants. I thought the step-by-step explanation of the learning cycle brought life to theory, and aptly demonstrated the multidimensionality of adult learning. I’m curious what you thought of the article.

The premise of the case is that “Many pharmaceutical products are temperature-sensitive and must be stored and transported at controlled temperatures” (Vesper et al., p. 229, 2010). The problem the pharmaceutical industry was facing was how to provide a rich learning environment for professionals who were part of the distribution process, and furthermore be able to evaluate the chain in order to be able to ensure the patients were receiving safe products efficiently.


Kolb’s experiential learning theory is “The process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience” (Vesper et al., p. 230, 2010).

Vygotsky introduces a social learning model that has two principles. There needs to be a person or a resource that has the ability to provide more information than the learner already knows; Vygotsky refers to this as MKO, which is a more knowledgeable other. Second is that place where learning may progress as a result of MKO support, and this is known as the zone of proximal development.

Question 1:
 In what ways do you believe Kolb’s experiential learning cycle and Vygotsky’s social learning theory complement each other?

Question 2: Reflecting on your own rich experiential learning opportunities, can you describe one learning situation where you have moved through Kolb’s Learning Cycle? Please briefly discuss if you had a mentor or coach and how they helped facilitate your learning.


Exercise 3


While our own educational development and programs are deeply rooted in Western educational theory and practice, Reagan and our other readings for the week remind us that there are many non-Western educational practices that are equally viable and relevant.  We are warned to avoid ethnocentrism “the tendency to view one’s own cultural group as superior to others” (Reagan, 2000, p. 3) when evaluating non-Western educational theories and approaches.  Ethnocentrism amounts to regarding one’s own system of beliefs and societal norms are “correct or normal” and are the standard by which all other cultures, norms, and societies are to be judged.  Reagan further defined two types of ethnocentrism:

  • Cultural ethnocentrism– “when writers and scholars allow common biases, prejudices, and assumptions to colour their work in various ways” (Reagan, 2000, p. 4).  An example of this would be making statements that a lack of formal schooling or lack of Western religion renders a culture as “primitive” or unable to function “normally.”
  • Epistemological ethnocentrism– when the “dominant paradigm in a field of study at any given point in time establishes the parameters within which ‘legitimate’ discourse may take place” (Reagan, 2000, p. 4).  An example would be the rejection of any educational theory that exists outside of the Western “literature” on the subject.

Much of current Western educational theory and practise is based upon a dichotomy of the mind and the body, that they are separate.  Western learning theory is focused on “cognition, information processing, intelligence measures [and] cognitive development” (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 217).  Western educational focus supports learning as an individual pursuit and that learners are autonomous and independent thinkers, rather than community-based and interdependent (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007).

Our readings introduced multiple Non-Western perspectives, but four common themes emerged that contrast Western and Non-Western perspectives on learning.  In non-Western learning:

  • There is an emphasis on interdependence rather than independence in learning,
  • Interdependence is linked to the communal nature of learning rather than on isolated/independent learning,
  • Learning is accomplished through a holistic approach that includes mind, body, spirit and emotional components,
  • Learning is informal, integrated into everyday life and is lifelong in nature. (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007)

Question 1.     Do you agree with Reagan’s statements on ethnocentrism?  Why or why not?

Question 2.      How would having students who were educated in non-Western educational systems influence how you would teach in a Western educational setting?

Exercise 4:

In this article, Sawchuck discusses the idea of informal learning and work through an examination of contemporary literature from various schools of thought. The author seeks to provide context for their understanding of how society views work and learning to provide the reader with an overview of the subject matter. Throughout the article, Sawchuck challenges the available literature while providing suggestions for future learning and exploration on the topic.

Question 1:Based on your own understanding of learning, how would you describe informal learning? From the article, is there a specific methodology that you would be more interested in exploring if you were to conduct research in this area?

Question2:Have you been influenced more through formal or informal learning in the workplace? How so?

Exercise 5


The authors use the story of Benjamin Button to highlight various elements of learning including informal learning, biological development, physiological development, and cognitive development. It also presents a number of methods and models including the highly influential Piaget Development Model (1972).

One observation I made was different learning models have similarities and learning styles can fall within numerous styles simultaneously. For example, a social cognitive orientation to learning can exist within the context of informal learning, and that same learning experience might also be experiential learning. In other words, one might learn from their social environment in an unstructured informal way while learning through an applied experience all at the same time.

I believe this is why blended learning models have become so prevalent in organizations today where. For example, eLearning can support On the Job Training which might be supported by social interaction with a mentor or coach.

Question 1: Think of a recent time when you observed your social environment and learned something from what others were doing. What did you observe and how did you process that information to learn something new?

Question 2: Thinking about popular culture and media, what examples of a movie, TV show, scene, video, commercial, etc. can you think of that contribute to adult learning and development? Describe the media and summarize what an adult might learn from it.