What internal and/or external factors drove the initiatives at each company? Were these initiatives put in place as responses to challenges or to opportunities?

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What internal and/or external factors drove the initiatives at each company? Were these initiatives put in place as responses to challenges or to opportunities?

The questions below are based on the following three case studies of information systems projects/initiatives –

“Information Systems Use as Strategy Practice – A Multi-Dimensional View of Strategic Information System Implementation and Use,” (.pdf file), published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems
“Better Data Brings a Renewal at the Bank of England,” (.pdf file), published in MIT Sloan Management Review
“Failure of Large Transformation Projects from the Viewpoint of Complex Adaptive Systems: Management Principles for Dealing with Project Dynamics,” (.pdf file), published in Information Systems Frontiers
Questions

What internal and/or external factors drove the initiatives at each company? Were these initiatives put in place as responses to challenges or to opportunities?
How were business value, competitive advantage, risk, and organizational change considered in each project? Should they have been handled any differently?
In terms of organizational information integration, does each company appear to be pursuing the correct technological path? Suggest alternatives, additional initiatives, and/or next steps for each.